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Bulldog News Staff

Frank W. Thomas PhDOur pride in each new issue of the Bulldog Newspaper, it's beauty and cleverness shows the leadership we are known for. Welcome to the most distinctively conservative news page in on-line journalism today. Scrupulously conservative & nonpartisan, the Bulldog News has sought to promote an informed student and university community electorate since 1958.

The proliferation of the new media internet newspapers has put greater pressure on print media newspapers and magazines, both for advertisers' dollars and for consumers' leisure time. As the market fragments into a more diverse readership, print mediums are struggling to cope with ever shrinking rebenue streams. On the average day, media of all types consume about nine hours of a reader's time.

Americans watch more than four hours of television and listen to the radio for three hours, but they read the newspaper for only 28 minutes and consumer magazines for 14 minutes. In 2002 the nation had 1,570 daily newspapers- downb from 1,745 in 1980-and about 7,400 weekly newspapers.

Despite a growing population (a 22% increase since 1970), daily newspaper circulation has stagnated at about 62 million copies for the past several decades. America's daily circulation is exceeded only by Japan, whose 124 newspapers have a daily circulation of 72.5 million.

Germany and Britain have the next largest circulations, with 21 million copies each. In 1970, newspapers reached 98% of U.S. households. Today, newspapers reach less than 70% of the nation's households, and much less in some regions. Ownership of daily newspapers is highly concentrated.

Just 135 newspaper chains own three-quarters of the nation's daily newspapers and control about the same share of the dailies' circulation.In this student run newspaper, the separation of news from the editorial is intended to serve the reader, who is entitled to the facts in the news and to opinions in the editorials.

Nothing in these functions is intended to eliminate from the news honest, in-depth reporting, or analysis or commentary when plainly depicted as such.

The Bulldog Newspaper is the off-campus student-run journal of news and opinion at Fresno State University. All opinions expressed in articles, features, photos, ads, or editorials are solely those of the individual author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Frank W. Thomas Bulldog Education Foundation, the Bulldog News, its editors, or its staff.

Each student, graduate, and staff person of the Foundation is entitled to a free copy of the Bulldog News. Additional copies can be purchased for $20 per semester for a mailed subscription. The on-line version of the Bulldog New is provided via Internet delivery, free of charge.


The Bulldog News is published by the WebPortal community trust, a section 501(c)(3) non-profit corporation and does not endorse, support, or oppose candidates or proposed legislation. All contributions to the Friends of the Bulldog News by individuals, corporations, and foundations are tax deductible. The Bulldog News' front page features provide objective facts and news analysis of all the crucial issues facing successful higher education students and alums today.

In return for accepting this restriction on the dispersion of revenues, and for the commitment to devote all revenues to furthering charitable (or otherwise public service oriented) work, nonprofit enterprises pay no taxes, receive subsidized mail service, have access to low interest loans, sometimes exercise the power of eminent domain, and commonly receive direct government subsidies.

The rationale for the preferential treatment given nonprofits is that they are better able to provide important public services than are private for-profit enterprises.

The elimination of the profit motive and the provision of subsidies allow nonprofits to perform essential services that, because of thin markets, poor consumer information, or public goods problems, would otherwise not be provided or would be provided poorly.

In the early days, we served this mission by researching and recording in-depth news and feature stories and passing them on to local newspapers around the country.

Today, that public service continues with a web-based feature on The Fresno State Bulldog Newspaper off-campus Web site that provides timely news stories on key local, State, and Congressional votes and a searchable database.

For the casual political observer, the Bulldog News' acclaimed public opinion research Challenge of Democracy Survey offers a continuing measure of the dynamic student body political opinion on local, state and national issues compared with empirical national samples.

The Bulldog News is partnering with the Northwestern University political science department in order to access and compare the ongoing collection of student opinon.

The Survey, one of American university students' most heavily visited Web sites and click-through features, allows students to compare their personal position on key political issues to those of a larger nationawide databas of student opinion surveyed.

Each issue of Bulldog News begins with the the most important business news of the day, and a succinct treatment of the day's most important political and world events. The front page feature articles are designed to give readers the insight and perspective essential to informed decision making.

The Bulldog News' features some of the most vehemently debated political, social, and public policy topics confronting the the college campus and the country today. Topics such as the privatization of government services, health care, presidential politics, education, drugpolicy, taxes, affirmative action roll-back and many more are presented with a perspective you simply can't find in other mainstream media.

The Bulldog News profiles many of the nation's top achievers and tells you how and why each of them made it to where they are today.

The Front Page brings you the Bulldog News' unique and challenging 'Editorial' feature, guaranteed to provoke and stimulate thought on issues of local & national concern. Bulldog News does not aimto be "politically correct". Our mission is to present truth and interpret facts just as we see them!

By reading the Bulldog News' front page every day, you'll get the informational edge you need to succeed in today's America!

Because The Bulldog News is one of only a handful of student-run conservative (non-partisan) newspapers operating independently of the California State University System it serves, the non-profit corporation publishing the paper exists entirely on advertising revenues and gifts from advertisers, supporters, members, and subscribers.

The paper's break-even budget is stable enough to ensure that a fully implemented Internet Web Site posts a new front page five mornings a week, but expenditures that are not absolutely necessary often fall out of the equation.

Therefore, it has not been possible to publish a newsprint edition of the Bulldog News. Currently, the management is attempting to obtain grant funds in order to pay the cost of starting-up a weekly print edition with 10 pages of news stories and classified listings.

For his reason, new computers in the newsroom and a travel budget for reporters - things that are key to the training mission of the newspaper - cannot always be accommodated when desired.

That's why The Bulldog Newspaper Foundation exists. All funds raised by the Foundation are strictly earmarked for student newsroom training, whether it be sending a reporter to a day-long conference on media ethics, or helping to pay for photo processing equipment similar to that found at larger newspapers where our staffers might someday work.

The Fresno State campus and off-campus university grad students in surrounding communities provide our reporters, photographers and editors with plenty to cover; the Foundation serves to ensure that they write, process and edit on the kind of equipment that will prepare them for a career in journalism or related fields. he seven-member Bulldog Newspaper Foundation board is composed of former Fresno State Bulldog News' staff members and other supporters of the paper and its goals.

Howard E. Hobbs, PhD, JD, the general editor, and CEO of the national conservative Daily Republican Newspaper, Inc. is the Bulldog News' staff mentor and sponsoring editor. Hobbs is a 1958 Fresno State Ford Fellow who was in the California State legislature, and now also serves the as our Foundation chairperson.

Our goal for 1998-2000 is to provide the support necessary to help The Bulldog News' online Web site become the best online journalism training center on any university campus.

Online technology is already influencing the career paths of many young conservative journalists, and - assuming that trend continues - The Bulldog News goal for 1998-2000 is to provide the support necessary to provide hands-on conservative (non-partisan) online technical training for student journalists and to publish the writing of university students, faculty, and noted alums in a first-rate on-line news service.

The newspaper's online news department has the potential for significant growth in the near future, but will need the support of the Foundation to make sure it happens sooner rather than later.

A unit of The Bulldog Newspaper Foundation, the American Journalism Institute exists to bring interested University alumni and former University students together as well as to provide mentorship to the current newsroom staff.

Any monetary or in-kind contribution to The Bulldog Newspaper Foundation supports a one-year membership in the Newspaper's Alumni Association.

Membership includes a quarterly alumni newsletter, a membership directory published biannually, and invitations to all alumni gatherings. Institutes were recently held in Fresno and Sacramento, and others are planned for Washington, D.C.

All revenues raised from alumni donations go toward newsroom training and equipment upgrades at The Bulldog News.

Our development goal for 1997-1998 is to obtain sufficient financial support to provide an additional student writer and begin distribution of on campus weekly print edition the Bulldog News. Advanced digital scanning equipment purhahsed with alumni contributions was recently installed in the newspaper's graphics art department.

The Bulldog News is not affiliated with Fresno State University, which is one of the oldest of the state universities. The campus was founded in 1911 as a state normal school. Over time, the campus expanded its academic programs, becoming a state college in 1935, and achieving full university status in 1972.

Located amid vineyards and orchards at the northeast edge of the City of Fresno, the campus is an official arboretum boasting more than 3,000 trees. Planted in the heart of the agriculturally rich San Joaquin Valley, near three major national parks, the university's 987 full and part-time faculty serve 17,182 students.

The 327-acre main campus features more than 46 buildings, with an additional 34 structures on the 1,083-acre University Farm, one of the most modern agricultural facilities in the west. Two student unions, indoor and outdoor theaters, swimming facilities, a 4,500-seat baseball stadium, and a 41,000-seat football and soccer stadium complement the outstanding research facilities which include computer, engineering, electronics, and industrial technology laboratories.

Fresno State University offers 56 baccalaureate degree majors, with more than 100 options, master's degrees in 40 fields of study, and a joint education leadership doctorate with the University of California, Berkeley.

In 1997 Fresno State University takes pride in its claim that its faculty places emphasis on practical studies. Fresno State, having begun as a teacher training institute, still has the reputation for its preoccupation with training students for welfare state jobs in an ever expanding government job market, e.g. elementary school teachers, public administrators, social workers, health care workers, city planners, police, correctional & probation officers.

This Fall, only 27 percent were lower division students, 55 percent were upper division students, with 17 percent in graduate degree studies.

To help the Bulldog Newspaper in its conservative education mission on the Fresno State campus, or for more information, e-mail Bulldog Newspaper Foundation.


Contact Points:
Editor & Publisher
The Bulldog Newspaper,[BulldogNews.Net]
Off Campus Mail Service
River Park Box 3246
Pinedale, California 93650
[Tele-Fax 559.298.9349]

Ocupational Outllook for Writers

A college degree generally is required for a position as a writer or editor. Although some employers look for a broad liberal arts background, most prefer to hire people with degrees in communications, journalism, or English. For those who specialize in a particular area, such as fashion, business, or legal issues, additional background in the chosen field is expected. Knowledge of a second language is helpful for some positions.

Technical writing requires a degree in, or some knowledge about, a specialized field—engineering, business, or one of the sciences, for example. In many cases, people with good writing skills can learn specialized knowledge on the job. Some transfer from jobs as technicians, scientists, or engineers.

Others begin as research assistants, or trainees in a technical information department, develop technical communication skills, and then assume writing duties. Writers and editors must be able to express ideas clearly and logically and should love to write. Creativity, curiosity, a broad range of knowledge, self-motivation, and perseverance also are valuable. Writers and editors must demonstrate good judgment and a strong sense of ethics in deciding what material to publish.

Editors also need tact and the ability to guide and encourage others in their work. For some jobs, the ability to concentrate amid confusion and to work under pressure is essential. Familiarity with electronic publishing, graphics, and video production equipment increasingly is needed.

Online newspapers and magazines require knowledge of computer software used to combine online text with graphics, audio, video, and 3-D animation. High school and college newspapers, literary magazines, community newspapers, and radio and television stations all provide valuable, but sometimes unpaid, practical writing experience.

Many magazines, newspapers, and broadcast stations have internships for students. Interns write short pieces, conduct research and interviews, and learn about the publishing or broadcasting business. In small firms, beginning writers and editors hired as assistants may actually begin writing or editing material right away. Opportunities for advancement can be limited, however.

In larger businesses, jobs usually are more formally structured. Beginners generally do research, factchecking, or copy editing. They take on full-scale writing or editing duties less rapidly than do the employees of small companies. Advancement often is more predictable, though, coming with the assignment of more important articles


by HOWARD HOBBS, Sponsoring Editor the Bulldog News

WASHINGTON D.C. - What is news? The answers to this question are daunting. Some students say that news is '...whatever is happening, and sometimes things that have not yet happened.'

Whatever it really is, it should be an intersting story that is clear, concise, and complete.

Copy editing makes every news story remarkable for its simplicity. This happens because editors are knowledgeable of and proficient in usage of the English language as an artistic communication tool.

The following Bulldog Newspaper Foundation's digital electronic reference materials are very powerful when it comes to the means and methods available to those engaged in the profrssion of e-journalism today. Use them with great caution. Treat them with respect and they will serve you well.

How to Cite Internet Sources

How to Cite a Print Source


Legal Resources

Copyright Law and Intellectual Property


Copyright on the Web




Copyright Law and Intellectual Property





General Communication Sites

Scholarly Communication and Technology Papers from a paper organized by the Mellon Foundation; lots of useful material.

Scholarly Electronic Journals - Trends and Academic Attitudes: A Research Proposal

By Philip McEldowney, UVa.

PEAK: Pricing Electronic Access to Knowledge

Project at UMichigan, conducted by Jeff MacKie-Mason.

Electronic Publishing Programs in Science and Technology

By Elizabeth Brown and Andrea Duda.

Taming the Serials Jungel with the ISSN

The ISSN (International Standard Serials Number) homepage.

Newsletter on Serials Pricing

Lots of information about trends in serials pricing.

Library and Information Science

Library Science and librarianship materials, companies and organizations on the web.

Buildings, Books, and Bytes

This report reveals what library leaders and the public have to say about the future of libraries in the digital age.

Scholarly Society

Access to information about scolarly societies around the world.

Literary Publishing

The Penguin Electronic Mission

Literary publishing expanding into the electronic age.

Electronic Texts in the Humanities

Reviewed texts, periodical literature, refereed journals and more.


Freelance Writers and Online Commerce

The National Writers Union that makes a strong case for self-publishing and the power of the net for freelance writers.

National Press Club

Lots of resources for journalists.

Electronic Journals

Electronic Journal Market Overview - 1997

By George Machovee, Colorado Allilance of Research Libraries.

Journal of Electronic Publishing

An electronic archive of works deemed thoughtful and provocative as well as reflective of the current issues and trends in electronic publishing.

Future of Mathematical Communication

The description of a winter 1994 conference sponsered by the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute.

Bibliography of the economics of scholarly communication


Scholarly Electronic Publishing Bibliography

The bibliography presents selected works, published between 1990 and the present, that are useful in understanding scholarly electronic publishing efforts on the Internet and other networks -- prepared by Charles W. Bailey, Jr.
Hyper-G project
A modification of WWW specifically designed for electronic journals. Journal of Universal Computer Science is an example of a Hyper-G system.

Project Muse

A "new venture in electronic scholarly communications" from Johns Hopkins University.

Scholarly Journals at the Crossroads

A series of essays and discussions about the future of academic journals. You may order a hard copy of the book by sending email to You may also download a copy.

Tragic loss or good riddance? The impending demise of traditional scholarly journals

An interesting discussion of the future of electronic journals.

On the Road to Electronic Publishing

By Andrew Odlyzko. A followup to the above paper.

The PostGutenberg Galaxy

An article by Stevan Harnad.


A discussion list devoted exclusively to electronic journals, especially those which publish on the World Wide Web. It is concerned with all aspects of the production and publication of electronic journals, particularly those managed by academics.

Pricing Information Goods

A paper by Hal R. Varian, with emphasis on problems facing electronic journals.

Scholarly Journals on the Web

This directory provides links to established Web-based scholarly journals that offer access to English language article files without requiring user registration or fees.

Physics E-print Archive

An 11 page paper describing the archive at Los Alamos.

Association of Research Libraries

The ARL gopher page on scholarly communication. ARL's 1995 list of Electronic Journals and Newsletters.

Electronic Resources Project

A collection of electronic journals in the area of library, archival and information sciences from the University of Toronto.

OCLC Electronic Journals Online

Vannevar Bush's Vision
A 1945 article that describes his ideas of hypertext.

Association for Computing Machinery

An international scientific and educational organization dedicated to advancing the art, science, engineering, and application of information technology, serving both professional and public interests by fostering the open interchange of information a nd by promoting the highest professional and ethical standards.

First Monday

a peer-reviewed, electronic journal dedicated to the Internet, and only available on the Internet.

Electronic Magazines

WEBster: The Cyberspace Surfer

A World Wide Web E-Zine issued twice monthly all the breaking Web news, hot test product releases and latest technology concerning the Net. Trial issues are available free, there is a subscription fee.

D-Lib Magazine

D-Lib Magazine is a monthly magazine with articles, news, and commentary on all aspects of digital library research.

Extensible Markup Language (XML)

From Computerworld.


A group at the University of Michigan is developing a public library on the Internet and anyone with a Web browser can enter and check it out. The IPL provides a variety of reference sources and information about electronic libraries. While still in its infancy, IPL offers the blueprints of the future electronic library.

The SCAM Approach to Copy Detection in Digital Libraries

Interesting article on how to detect copies and near-copies of digital documents.

Illinois Digital Library Initiative Project

Bunch of DL stuff.


The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) is creating a catalog of Internet resources that will be accessible via the Internet. This page is a good place to find out about the project and the resources currently available.


D-Lib is a forum for researchers and developers of advanced digital libraries. It is coordinated by the Corporation for National Research Initiatives for the Information Infrastructure Technology and Applications task group of the High Performance Computing and Communications program

UM Digital Library Project

A joint project of Univ. of Michigan, NSF, NASA, and ARPA. The content will emphasize a diverse collection, focused on earth and space sciences, which can satisfy the needs of many different types of users. They have a prototype of the UMDL available.

UM TULIP Project

An initiative of Elsevier Science Publishers to explore the issues involved in electronic distribution of scholarly journals. The TULIP project involves nine universities and about sixty Materials Science journal titles.

Carnegie-Mellon Digital Video LibraryProject

The DVL project will establish a large, on-line digital video library by developing intelligent, automatic mechanisms to populate the library and allow for full-content and knowledge-based search and retrieval via desktop computer and metropolitan area networks.

Roles for Electronic Brokers .

Paper by Paul Resnick, Richard Zeckhauser and Chris Avery concerns brokering services (e.g., matching providers with consumers, negotiating prices), not product delivery. It is part of the Center for Coordination Science at MIT.

Report on Electronic Publishing on Library Services in the UK


Simon Fraser Electronic Library Project

The library is a part of the Internet Electronic Library Project at SFU, being carried out by Prof. Rob Cameron of the SFU School of Computing Science in collaboration with the SFU Library.

Attention Contributors & Authors

The Bulldog Newspaper production process includes the following steps:

  • copyediting
  • return of copy edited manuscript to author
  • author's response goes back to copyeditor
  • final copy edited article goes to html "typesetter"
  • typesetter enters edits html tagging & formatting
  • proofreading
  • author sees formatted version
  • typesetter makes final html corrections
  • story is published (i.e., posted on the site)

Individuals subscribers and institutions are allowed to use the content liberally, with permission to do the following posted on the Web site:

  • read articles directly from the official journal servers, or from any other server that grants you access
  • copy articles to user's own file space for temporary use form your own permanent archive of articles, which user may keep even after subscription lapses
  • display articles in the ways most convenient to user (on one's computer, printed on paper, converted to spoken form, etc.)
  • apply agreeable typographical styles from any source to lay out and display articles
  • apply any information retrieval, information processing, and browsing software from any source to aid study of articles
  • convert articles to other formats from the LaTeX and PostScript forms on the official servers
  • share copies of articles with other subscribers
  • share copies of articles with nonsubscribing collaborators as a direct part of collaborative study or research

E-Library database subscribers may also:

  • print individual articles and other items for inclusion in periodoical collection or for placing on reserve at the request of a faculty member place articles on your campus network for access by local users, or post article listings and notices on the network
  • share print or electronic copy of articles with other libraries under standard interlibrary loan procedures

American E-News Links:

National Newspapers




























New Hampshire

New Jersey

New Mexico

New York

North Carolina

North Dakota





Rhode Island

South Carolina







Washington D.C.

West Virginia



National College and University Press


     Members of the Bulldog Newspaper Foundation staff believe that public enlightenment is the forerunner of justice and the fouundation of the freedom of the press.  
      The duty of Bulldog Newspaper journalist is to further those ends by seeking truth and providing a fair and comprehensive account of events and issues. Conscientious journalists from all media and specialties strive to serve the public with thoroughness and honesty. Professional integrity is the cornerstone of a journalist's credibility. Members of the Foundation share a dedication to ethical behavior and adopt this code to declare the Foundation's principles and standards of practice.
    Student journalists should be honest, fair and courageous in gathering, reporting and interpreting information. Test the accuracy of information from all sources and exercise care to avoid inadvertent error. Deliberate distortion is never permissible.
    Diligently seek out subjects of news stories to give them the opportunity to respond to allegations of wrongdoing. Identify sources whenever feasible. The public is entitled to as much information as possible on sources' reliability.
    Always question sources’ motives before promising anonymity. Clarify conditions attached to any promise made in exchange for information.
    Make certain that headlines, news teases and promotional material, photos, video, audio, graphics, sound bites and quotations do not misrepresent. They should not oversimplify or highlight incidents out of context.
    Never distort the content of news photos or video. Image enhancement for technical clarity is always permissible. Label montages and photo illustrations.
    Avoid misleading re-enactments or staged news events. If re-enactment is necessary to tell a story, label it.
     Do not engage in pretense or dishonest methods of gathering nes and information except when traditional open methods will not yield information vital to the public. Use of such methods should be explained as part of the story.
    Tell the story of the diversity and magnitude of the human experience boldly, even when it is unpopular to do so. Avoid stereotyping by race, gender, age, religion, ethnicity, geography, sexual orientation, disability, physical appearance or social status.  Support the open exchange of views, even views they find repugnant.
    Give voice to the voiceless; official and unofficial sources of information can be equally valid. Distinguish between advocacy and news reporting. Analysis and commentary should be labeled and not misrepresent fact or context.
    Distinguish news from advertising and shun hybrids that blur the lines between the two. Recognize a special obligation to ensure that the public's business is conducted in the open and that government records are open to inspection.
     Ethical journalists treat sources, subjects and colleagues as human beings deserving of respect. Show compassion for those who may be affected adversely by news coverage. Use special sensitivity when dealing with children and inexperienced sources or subjects.
    Be sensitive when seeking or using interviews or photographs of those affected by tragedy or grief.
    Recognize that gathering and reporting information may cause harm or discomfort. Pursuit of the news is not a license for arrogance.
    Recognize that private people have a greater right to control information about themselves than do public officials and others who seek power, influence or attention. Only an overriding public need can justify intrusion into anyone’s privacy.
     Avoid pandering to lurid curiosity. Be cautious about identifying juvenile suspects or victims of sex crimes.
    Take care in identifying criminal suspects in a story before the official filing of charges. Balance a criminal suspect’s fair trial rights with the public’s right to be informed.
     Journalists will have no conflicts of interest, real or perceived. Remain free of associations and activities that may compromise integrity or damage credibility.
    Refuse gifts, favors, fees, free travel and special treatment, and shun secondary employment, political involvement, public office and service in community organizations if they compromise journalistic integrity.
    Disclose unavoidable conflicts. Be vigilant and courageous about holding those with power accountable. Deny favored treatment to advertisers and special interests and resist their pressure to influence news coverage.
    Bulldog Newspaper Journalists are accountable to their readers, viewers and each other. We clarify and explain news coverage and invite open dialogue with the public.

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